Basic Math Tools

1. The sigma operator

a. If 'a' is a constant then const

b. If a is a constant then convar

c. Given two series x and y then sum x and y

d. Given two series then product and division look like



e. Given two series then the double sum operates as

double sum

2. Properties of linear functions

a. Intercept and slope: eqn01

b. Partial effects:eqn02

3. Proportions and percentages

a. Change change

b. Proportionate change percent

4. Special Functions

a. Quadratic functions

b.Natural Logarithms: y = log(x), The graph: Increasing at a decreasing rate.

c. The Exponential: y = exp(x), The graph: Increasing at an increasing rate.

5. Differentiation

a. The derivative is a linear operator so its properties are similar to the summation operator.

b. The derivative tells us the rate of change or slope of a function.

b. A rule: deriv


c. When the first derivative is zero then the functino has reached either its maximum or its minimum.

d. Partial differentiation.

e. The chain rule: