Tips from Seminars at SailExpo 1998

In February 1998 Maria and I went to Sail Expo in Atlantic City, New Jersey.  A common refrain among speakers and authors is that being better informed increases the likelihood of having a good time on an extended cruise.   I went to three seminars by the Neale family and Maria participated in "Take the Helm", sponsored by the National Women's Sailing Association.  Given our limited free time, splitting up for different seminars seemed the wise thing to do.   Our free time is so limited that in the car on the way to Atlantic City Maria remarked that this was almost like a date.  We had planned the trip in advance and had no kids with us.  We both had a good time and encourage you to build a boat show and associated seminars into your preparation schedule.  What I offer here is only the briefest synopses of the seminars I attended. In some places we have added our own observations to clarify or expand on a point. Reading these brief notes is not a substitute for hearing the speaker, hearing others' questions, and posing your own questions.

What follows is a combination of our own synopses and materials distributed by the seminar leaders.  We present it here for your education, not our profit.  For clarification of the material you should contact the instructors.


An Overview on Planning to Go

Boat and Crew Tips

A Checklist - - Timeline

Budget Examples

An Overview of the ICW and Bahamas

Navigation on the ICW and in the Bahamas.

Mel Neale's Favorite Stops on the ICW

Sail Trim

Marine Insurance

First Aid Kit

First Aid Procedures


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Weather: An Introduction
by Michael Carr

1.  There are two kinds of NOAA (to see them in real time, or FTP to download the file and open later) weather charts.
    a.  Upper air charts which show atmospheric conditions at an altitude corresponding to 500 millibars(mb) of air pressure.
    b.  Surface Charts
        i.  Analysis of current weather patterns.   There is a time stamp, in Greenwich meant time, on these charts which indicates the hour at which the data was recorded.  The chart doesn't then become available for another 3 hours or so.
        ii. 48 hour surface forecast charts.

2.  Wind blows form a High pressure to a Low pressure.  If wind speed arrows are missing you can use a geostrophic scale and the distance between isobars to measure wind speed.
    a.  Normal sea level pressure is 1013 mb.
    b.  Isobars are drawn in 4mb increments.
    c.  Lows and highs are so designated rleative to one another, not relative to an absolute scale based on normal air pressure at sea level.

3.  Across cold fronts you can expect to experience big wind shifts in direction and speed.

4.  In the absence of surface friction, global rotation, etc., wind flows parallel to isobars.  Air circulates counter-clockwise around a Low and clockwise around a high.  Lows pull the wind direction into the center and highs pull the wind out. 

5.  On a current analysis chart, an arrow from an x marking the location of a low to another x is meant to indicate the direction of the Low over the next 24 hours.

6.  A low is produced by a mixing of warm and cold air, that produces convective activity, and consequently variable winds.  In a weather report the reported wind is an average; add about 50% to account for gusts.

7.  Centered on a Low it will be raining ahead of a warm front, between a the warm front and the trailing cold front it will be cloudy, and behing the cold front it will be clear.

8.  Surface lows live underneath the low pressure ridges you will find on the upper air charts.  Given this feature, the upper air charts can be used to predict the weather you can expect to see some days hence.

The National Weather Service and Florida State University have teamed up to produce a site which delivers weather data from stations and buoys slected by the user from a map.  Weather Services International provides radar views of your area.


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An Overview of Planning to Go

by Tom Neale

1.  What kind of boat are you looking for?  Are you planning to go around the Horn, or will you be sailing the East Coast, Bahamas, and Caribbean, or will all your sailing be done on, say, Chesapeake Bay?   The 'round the Horn boat will have lots of storage space; the East Coast - Bahamas boat will have more space for you to live in;  the Chesapeake Bay boat will have lots of room for guests to sit around the dinner table.  All should be assessed for their sea worthiness before going on to any other criteria.

2.  Be sure you can live with the creature comforts available in the boat you have selected.  Sit in all of the seats, lay in the bunks, sit on the head, stand in the shower, pretend to shave in the mirror, pretend you are chaning the oil filter or starter.

3.  Is there enough storage?   Lockers and shelves are of greater utility than drawers.

4.  If you are planning to confine your travels to the East Coast and Bahamas then plan to limit your draft to six feet and your ast height to less than 63 feet.  Although the fixed ICW bridges are said have 65 feet clearance, this is an exaggeration in some cases.

5.  Does the boat manouevre well under power?  This can be important in the ICW when you are waiting in a narrow channel for a bridge to open.

6.  Does it sail well?   This is not asking whether it is a winner in yacht club races, but whether it points reasonably well and will actually get you to your destination before the next millenium.

7.  Does your dream boat have a good anchoring system?  A windlass is usefull for re- re- re-anchoring at 2AM.   Can your rode pull to one side then the other without being severed or tangled?   Use chain on your primary anchor with a mild mannered snubber to take up shock.   A CQR backed up by a Danforth is indispensible on the East Coast and in the Bahamas.

8.  Invest in spare parts and know how to install them.

9.  Plan to spend $20,000 per year if yo are the typical sabbatical sailor.

10.  Invest in convenience and creature comforts.  If your sailing partner likes to be comfortable and you are indifferent, then accomodate your partner or you'll both be miserable.  Remember, camping out is o.K. for short periods, but gets old with the passage of time.
  For convenience and peace of mind, get a watermaker.  This becomes more important the further south one gets in the Bahamas or in remote less developed areas.
  Get an inverter so that you can have cheap 120V tools on board, like your spouses hairdryer.  With a high output alternator, say 120 amps, you will soon be repeating AC electricity is good as your mantra.
  A refrigerator is good.  At the very least It may permit ice cubes in your evening cocktail.  In any case, it will allow you to have greater variety in your diet and you will be able to eat fresh food.
  A holding tank is nice if you have ready access to pump-out facilities.  The Electra-san by Raritan is even better.  It meets Federal discharge regulations, it doesn't smell, and it frees you from shore side pump outs.

11.  Be prepared for pests.   Bring along a rat trap and some roach hotels for VERY large bugs.

12.  Your dinghy is an important investment.  Get the biggest dink you can safely carry, along with the largest motor it can handle.  Be sure it is ugly and that you have a stout cable and lock to secure it.

13.  Don't buy your boat and jump right off shore.  Cruise coastally to work out the kinks and get 'inexpensive' repairs.

14.  Allow a month for mail to catch up with you.  Think about a mail forwarding service.  Give some thought to prepaying bills.

15.  Bahamian law is that your dog must be checked by a Vet 24 hours before bringing him into the country, and then upon landing you must have him examined by a Bahamian Vet.  In practice most people just disregard all this and take their chances.

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An Overview of the ICW and Bahamas

by Tom Neale

1.  Plan on being in the northeast in the summer, the Chesapeake in September and October, and in Miami in December.

2.  From the Chesapeake to South Florida you can stay inside if you want.  Regardless of the weather outside, you can travel every day in relative calm.  Once you are committed to being offshore, you are out there in whatever conditions Mother Nature throws at you.

3.  In terms only a boater can understand, cheap repairs can be had in Deltaville, VA and Fort Lauderdale.

4.  The biggest problem on the ICW is powerboat wakes.  The best advice is to slow up, to a virtual stop, for the power boats.  This allows them to come down off plane and pass you wake free.   Most of them will show you this courtesy.

5.  Along the ICW you should stand by on VHF 13 and 16 to listen for commercial traffic.

6.  When crossing to the Bahamas, wait for a weather window.  Wait 24-48 hours after a norther passes, until the wind is from the East or Southeast.  If you wait until the wind is from the SW it may be too late, as this usually herals another norther.  It will take 2 - 3 days to go through to good anchorages.

7.  Navigation is in the Bahamas is by eyeball.  It is important to keep the sun behind you.  If the water is blue or green it is okay.  Black, brown and yellow are bad.  A brown irregular shape is usually grass.

8.  Have large platic garbage bags for storing your trash until you can get to a village to dump it.

9.  In the Turks and Caicos you can't dive for fresh fish.  In the Bahamas you should take your fish away from the reefs, make sure they are not overly large, and are not too high on the food chain.   This is reputed to minimize the risk of ciguetera poisoning.

10.  In the southern Bahamas the water is shallower and the all weather anchorages are fewer.  In the Exumas you may have to reanchor when a front comes through.  You must keep a weather eye out.   Further north in January and February the weather is cooler, there are more fronts, but there is a greater number of all weather anchorages.

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Navigation on the ICW and in the Bahamas

by Mel Neale

1.  When travelling in the ICW stay in the channels and follow the range marks.

2.  Travelling past cuts you will find that the lift or the impedence you get from tidal currents will wash out over the course of a day or two.  One exception is to try to catch the current at Cape Fear in North Carolina.

3.  Boredom on the ICW depends on you.  The animals and landscape will change as you go south.  Pay attention and you will see deer, porpoises, and maybe even a bear.  It also pays to know the history of the region.

4.  Not all of the fixed bridges on the ICW are a full 65 feet!

5.  Study the chart and guide book for the next day so you are prepared before setting out in the morning.

6.  Pick reaonable goals for each days travel.  Keep in mind that the ICW is measured in statute miles, but your boat speed is measured in knots.  Know how fast your boat goes.

7.  Use recognized anchorages on your first trip.  Don't venture into nooks and crannies until you have local knowledge.

8.  Know the rules of the road, especially the whistle signals used by the commercial vessels when they are overtaking.

9.  The ICW has red on the right as you head south.  Don't be confused when the aids to navigation from an inlet cross or coincide with the ICW.  The ICW will always have a small reflective triangle on the starboard mark and a reflective square on the port mark, regardless of the overall shape and color of the mark.

10.  Do not cut close to the daymarks and beacons.

11.  If you must use the inlet at the Rock Pile - - Pine Island Cut on the Little River near Myrtle Beach, then call on the VHF beforehand to be sure there is no commercial traffic in the cut.  You don't want to be put up on the rock ledges.

12.  Inlets to use: Beaufort, Masonboro, Cape Fear, Cape Romain, Charleston, Savannah, Hilton Head, Wasau Sound, St. Simons, Jacksonville, Fort Pierce, Lake Worth, Ft Lauderdale, Government Cut.

13.  When South bound, stay inside at Cape Canaveral.

14.  Depart form either Lake Worth or Ft Lauderdale for West End in the Bahamas.  Leave right away for Green Turtle Cay.

15.  Depart Miami for Bimini and Gun Cay.

16. Depart Cape Florida for Bimini and Gun Cay.

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Copyright 1998

Goning South on Chez Nous

These are a few, picked for comfort, ease, and security, and sometimes just fun. They are arranged north to south by state. "A"= Anchorage and 'M"= Marina


A Eastern Shore: too numerous to list (see guidebook recommendations)

A&M Baltimore--history and entertainment side by side. Anchorage in Inner Harbor is small and deep, holding may be poor.

A&M Annapolis--history and boating center. City rents moorings.

A Rhode River--Can be very crowded on weekends.

A Solomons Island--Mill Creek

A&M  Solomons Island--Back Creek. There is a dinghy dock at Hospitality Harbor for shopping and groceries (small fee).

A Smith Creek--North side of Potomac, the Jutland Creek branch


A Mill Creek--South of Great Wicomico

A&M Deltaville--Jackson Creek, entered from the Piankatank provides excellent anchorages; Broad Creek, entered from the Rappahannock, has dockage and numerous boatyards, such as the Dozier Marine Centers.

A Milford Haven--East of bridge opposite Coast Guard Station, Exposed to southeast.

Narrows Marina--West of bridge at Milford Haven. Call "Chez Nous" to say hi.   Do not exit Milford Haven at the south end.

A East River--Mobjack Bay

A&M Sarah's Creek--York River Yacht Haven--a perfect place to rent a car to visit Colonial Williamsburg, and a popular haulout and do it yourself yard. A snug anchorage.

A&M Hampton--There is lots of history, a tiny anchorage, and excellent facilities at the Hampton City Docks.

Waterside--Norfolk--excellent marina. They don't have fuel, but there is good shopping, restaurants, and history.

North Carolina

M Mile #50. Coinjock--choice of three marinas, easy fuel

M Mile #132. Dowry Creek Marina--a beautiful serene setting, excellent service, cozy friendly atmosphere, easy fuel.

A Mile #135. Belhaven--Beware of strong southerly winds.

A&M Mile #204. Beaufort--Taylor Creek--Tie up at Beaufort Town Dock (individual fueling at your slip), pick up a mooring, or anchor in the creek, which is very tight with lots of current. Town is fun, there's a courtesy car at the NC Maritime Museum, and the best groceries are in Morehead City. You can also anchor in Town Creek.

A&M Mile #283. Wrightsville Beach--Motts Channel sometimes shoals, anchor in the basin south of the fixed bridge or tie up at Sea Path Marina or one of the many marinas on the ICW.

M Wilmington--up the Cape Fear River--is worth a side trip for its historical interest and beauty. Stay at the Wilmington Marine Center (you'll need transportation to town) or dock at the waterfront (limited space).

M Mile #310. Southport Area--Bald Head Island Marina. Tie up in an exclusive resort and enjoy all the facilities and the beautiful Cape Fear.

Yacht Basin Provisioning Company, in the Town Basin at Southport; dockage is sometimes available here; great food and friendly people.

South Carolina

M Mile #353. Barefoot Landing--A courtesy dock for a large open-air shopping mall. This can get very crowded.

A Mile #381. Bull Creek--Waccamaw River

A&M Mile #403. Georgetown--very friendly historical town; fresh seafood available at the Independent Seafood Company retail shop. Anchorage can be crowded with poor holding.

M Mile #430. ~McClellanville--Cheap fuel, and shrimp in season. Dock at Lelands' Marina. Not for those who like it fancy; low country working watermen's village.

M Mile #457. Wild Dunes Yacht Harbor--Fuel and all resort facilities available, as well as being close to Charleston.

Please note that all anchorages between Georgetown, SC, and

Fernandina Beach, FL, have strong reversing currents and 5-9 ft tides.

A Mile #487.5. Church Creek

M Mile #564. Harbour Town Yacht Basin--All resort facilities and easy fuel. A great place.

A Mile #566. Bull Creek


M Mile #583. Thunderbolt--Savannah. The historical district is a short taxi drive from the marinas on the ICW.

A Mile #711. Cumberland Island--No facilities and open to southwest. Anchor between park dock (not Dungeness) and Greyfield, and go ashore to enjoy the national park.


A&M Mile #776-778. St. Augustine--The anchorages are usually crowded and holding is poor, but the Marina at Camachee Cove is excellent, the Municipal Marina has easy fuel, and taxis are inexpensive. The historical district is within walking distance from anchorages and city marina.

A&M Mile #914. Dragon Point--There is easy shopping and you can pay to leave your dinghy at the marinas. There is easy fuel at Indian Harbor Beach Marina, and a liveaboard community.

M Mile #952. Vero Beach--Moorings and a marina. Very nice, and a lot of liveaboards.

A&M Mile #1014-1020. Lake Worth--A place of many possibilities, and you're finally in South Florida! There is an easy inlet if you are planning to cross to the Abacos.

A&M Mile #1063-1066. Ft. Lauderdale--Marinas include: The City Facilities at Las Olas (being rebuilt in early 1998), New River, and Cooley~'s Landing; Pier 66, Bahia Mar. You can anchor for 24 hours in Lake Sylvia, and there are city moorings at Las Olas for $15 a day. Easy fuel is available at Lauderdale Marina, and the inlet is easy to navigate.

A&M Mile #1089. Miami--Government Cut is a great place from which to cross to the Bahamas, and you can take your pick of marinas. You can anchor in the lee of Key Biscayne, Hurricane Harbor, or No Name Harbor (you have to pay). The Cape Florida Channel is not for a deep draft vessel.

The Bahamas

The following is a list of the few all-weather harbors (some are expensive marinas) in the popular areas of the Bahamas. It's important to keep track of the weather in the islands, and while there are many beautiful spots to anchor or dock, only a few are suitable for bad weather. If you choose to stay on a rented mooring in bad weather, check the gear yourself and add your own lines if necessary. These are not meant to be hurricane hole recommendations; you will have to pick those yourself. Here goes:

Abacos: Green Turtle Cay: White Sound--A&M; Black Sound--M and moorings.

Marsh Harbor--A&M

Hope Town--moorings

Man 0'War--M (mooring area too crowded for my comfort in bad weather)

Little Harbor--A (rental moorings may be questionable; harbor is enclosed; entrance is shallow)

Berry Islands: Chub Cay Marina

Eleuthra: Royal Island--A (rental moorings may not be maintained)

Exumas: Highbourne Cay Marina (southwest exposure) Sampson Cay Marina (inside)

Waderick Wells, north (rental moorings)

Exuma Land And Sea Park Headquarters Elizabeth Harbor, George Town A&M

Grand Bahama: West End is currently being rebuilt and will offer secure dockage in a resort setting. (There are numerous secure spots at marinas in the enclosed basins on the south side. I cannot personally recommend them as I have not been there.)

New Providence, Nassau: Hurricane Hole Marina

**Anchorages here can be rough, and current-ridden with poor holding, and most of the marinas are exposed**

This information is based on fourteen years of cruising experience in these areas aboard "Chez Nous", and is thought to be accurate, but you should make your own decisions based on your charts, guide books, and weather conditions. If you see us out there give us a shout on ch 16, and happy cruising!

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Weather helm - the boat wants to head up towards the wind and it is hard to steer the boat.

1. Too much rake: straighten up rig.

2. Tight main leech: check for too much sheet tension, too much vang tension, not enough backstay

3. No twist in main: ease sheet.

4. Boat heels too much: ease traveller towards leeward side, have crew hike harder.

5. Main is too full: pull on outhaul, pull on Cunningham, ease check stays and/or lowers.

6. Genoa/jib is too flat: move lead forward, ease halyard slightly.


Weather helm -

1 . Mainsail trim bad: ease sheet and traveller to leeward.

2. Genoa trim bad: use barberhaule~r or outboard lead when reaching to open the slot.

3 . The spinnaker is overtrimmed: ease sheet, bring guy aft, steer lower course.

Upwind Leehelm - the boat wants to bear away from the wind and you have to keep pushing the helm to lee. 1. Rig too far forward: add rake.

2. Mainsail leech is too open: trim sheet, ease backstay, put on checkstay, tighten lowers, ease outhaul and Cunningham.

3. Genoa/jib is too full: Tighten halyard, move lead back.

*Reaching with just a headsail and main, use these same solutions.



1. Bad main trim: Main probably is not trimmed hard enough. Ease permanent backstay. Firm up vang.

2. Too much windward heel: shift weight to leeward.

3. Spinnakerguy too far aft: ease forward slightly.

4. Bad steering: Keep the boat under the spinnaker.

Spinnaker problems:

Spin jumps about

1. Lead should be moved forward.

2. Snug up foreguy or downhaul.

3. Possibly lower pole a bit.

Spinnaker broaching - Deathrolling 1. Bad steering: Keep boat under the spinnaker.

2. Twing down the Spinnaker on the leeward side in very windy conditions to prevent rolling.

3. Ease guy forward and sheet harder.

Speed is slow with spinnaker 1. Ease main perpendicular to wind, ease outhaul, Cunningham, and permanent backstay.

2. Make sure mast is straight - forward is fast.

3. Check spinnaker trim: even clews, pole square to wind, maximum projection of sail to wind.

4. Check spinnaker trim lead: is it far enough aft to open slot?

5. Do not overtrim the sheet!

Pointing Upwind 1. Forestay may not be straight

enough. Snug up backstay and/or lowers.

2. Main and genoa/jib may not be trimmed right. Main: sheet more on centerline and a little harder. Genoa: Sheet harder and a bit inboard.

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adapted from The Voyager's Handbook.- the essential guide to bluewater cruising


Beth A. Leonard

Insuring your boat is a major decision which must reflect your personal financial situation. At fifteen percent of our total budget (for an average cost of $2,500 per year), insurance represented a sizable commitment of resources. We chose to be insured because Silk was our only asset, but even so we could not get insurance from June through October of 1994 after our underwriter folded. If you do decide to insure, expect to pay from one to two percent of hull value assuming you will be out of the tropics during the hurricane season. Otherwise, check your policy for a "named storm exclusion" which excludes coverage for damage from any named storm, i.e. a hurricane.

When we finished our trip, we knew of only two major players in the long-distance, couple on board, cruising insurance market: Lloyds of London and Pantaenius, a German company with a British subsidiary (44-17 52 22 36 56). Since then, Blue Water insurance (1-800866-8906) has begun a new program to underwrite boat insurance for SSCA members. If you are ex-military, you may be able to get insured at favorable rates through USAA, the insurance company for military personnel (1-800-531-8222). Unfortunately Luis, Marilyn, and Bertha reminded the insurance companies about hurricane risks. Expect increasing restrictions or higher premiums associated with staying in hurricane-prone areas during the season.

How one felt about being insured reflected the value of the boat. Our friends who were uninsured by choice had generally spent less than $50,000 on their boats and had done most of the work aboard themselves.  Those of us who chose to be insured had generaUy spent $150,000 and up on the boat.  We could not replace it without retuming to work for a long period of time. For those who had invested between $50,000 and $I 50,000 in their boats, the decision to insure varied from boat to boat and reflected personal considerations.

If you cannot afford the insurance premiums for worldwide coverage but would really prefer to be insured, there is a partial alternative. Assuming you leave the tropics during hurricane season, then you will be coastal cruising somewhere for a period of several months. In the Atlantic, that means Venezuela, Maine or the Mediterranean. In the Pacific, that means New Zealand or Australia. In the Indian Ocean, that means Thailand or South Africa. In all of these places you can get coastal insurance, either through a local insurance broker or one of the brokers mentioned above.

If you choose to do this, then for up to six months of every year you are protected at a reasonable rate compared to the premiums charged for offshore voyaging. The two places where we most appreciated being insured were navigating reef strewn waters and approaching harbors bustling with freighters and fishing boats. While this solution doesn't help much with the tropical reefs, the largest harbors tend to be in the more developed countries. So this alternative covers some risks and may be a compromise worth investigating.

Alliance Marine Risk Management, Inc., 1400 Old Country Rd., Suite 307, Westbury NY 1 1590 (516) 333-7000 also arranges coverage for cruising boats. Insurers may require you to have 3 people aboard for an offshore passage. Premiums are based on variables such as experience, loss history, navigational limits (where you are cruising) and time of year. A 2% deductible (based on the value of your boat) is not uncommon for an offshore cruising boat

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Coastal Cruising

(within 1-2 days of professional medical care)


•Adrenaline HCI - Adrenal hormone. For injection in severe allergic reactions (anaphylactic shock). Supplied as 1 ml ampules (1: 1 000 solution). Dose = 0.4 to 1. 0 ml subcutaneously. WARNING! Do not inject directly into the bloodstream. Verify that needle is not in a blood vessel. (Note ANA-KIT used by individuals with severe allergies contains this drug, pre-measured in a syringe with an appropriate needle).

Aspirin (or Tylenol) - For relief of mild pain, control or fever or anti-inflammatory action. Dose = 1 or 2 tablets orally every 4 hours. WARNING! May cause tendency to bleed. Do not give to patients taking anticoagulants or with peptic ulcer.

•Ampicillin - Broad spectrum antibiotic. Supplied as 250 mg oral capsules. Dose = 2 capsules every 6 hours the first day and 1 capsule every 6 hours for 6 additional days. WARNING! Do not give if there is any history of allergy to Penicillin.

•Keflex - A first generation cephalosporin broad-spectrum antibiotic for the treatment of deep skin and soft tissue infection including wound infection. It comes in 500 mg capsules. Dose is 500 mg by mouth three times per day for 1 0 days.

Benadryl - An antihistamine used for itching. Has sedative effect and may be used to help sleep. Do not take with alcohol or narcotic. Supplied as 25 mg caplet. Dose is one or two caplets every 6 hours. Over the counter drug.

•Benzoin Compound Tincture - Adhesive liquid for external use to stick down adhesive tape bandages and steri-strips. WARNING!. Not for internal use.

•Bacitracin Ointment - Topical antibiotic ointment. Supplied as 1 oz. tubes. Dose = Apply generously to injured area.

•Cipro (Ciproflaxacin) A drug for the treatment of urinary tract infections. Sup@lied as 50o mg oral tablets. Dose 500 mg twice daily for 1 0 days.

•Cortisporin Ear Drops - Used for external ear infections. Supplied in 1 0 oz. bottles. Dose = 4 drops to affected ear 3-4 times daily. WARNING! Some patients are allergic to this and react with itching and swelling.

•Compazine Suppositories - For control of severe nausea and vomiting. Supplied as 25 mg rectal suppositories. Dose=1 suppository rectally. May be repeated in 12 hours. WARNING! May cause drowsiness or low blood pressure. Do not take with alcohol.

•Demerol - Narcotic agent for control of severe pain. Supplied as 1 ml ampules containing 50 mg. Dose = 50 mg intramuscularly. May be repeated in 4 hours. WARNINGI Addictive. Do not give to patients receiving other narcotics, sedatives, tranquilizers or anti-depressant drugs. Do not take with. alcohol. Assure that systolic blood pressure is over 1 00 or that arterial pulse is strong. OVERDOSE: respiratory depression, cool and clammy skin, and complete circulatory collapse. Treatment = CPR if necessary and 1 or 2 ampules of Narcan IM immediately.

Dramamine - For prevention and treatment of nausea, vomiting and dizziness or vertigo associated with motion sickness. Do not take if you have glaucoma or difficulty with urination. May cause marked drowsiness.
    Liquid 12.5 mg/4 ml
    Tablets 50 mg/tablet
    Injectable 50 mg/l cc
    Don't give to children less than 2 years.
        Age 2-6 years -1 -2 teaspoon every 6-8 hours.
        Age 6-11 years - 2-4 teaspoon every 6-8 hours.
    Adults - 50-100 mg every -6 hours.

•Erythromycin - A broad spectrum antibiotic to be substituted for Ampicillin in patients with known or suspected Penicillin allergy. Supplied as 250 mg tablets. Dose = 2 tablets every six hours the first day and 1 tablet every six hours for 6 to 9 succeeding days. WARNING! Do not take in the presence of known liver disease. Do not take with food.

•Empirin with Codeine No. 2 - Aspirin and narcotic agent for the relief of moderately severe pain. Supplied in packages of 25 tablets. Dose = 1 or 2 tablets every four hours as necessary to relieve moderately severe pain. Do not exceed four doses. WARNING! Addictive. See warnings for Aspirin and Demerol. Frequently causes vomiting and constipation.

•Ephedrine Sulfate - Used with Phenergan as a preventative for motion sickness. Also used as a decongestant and to treat asthma. Supplied as 25 mg tablets. Dose = 1 tablet every 8 hours to prevent motion sickness. WARNING! Use with caution in presence of heart disease or hypertension and with prostatic hypertrophy.

•Kenalog Cream - A steroid cream used to topically treat inflammatory skin conditions. Supplied as 0.25% cream in 15 gram tubes. Dose = apply to affected areas of the skin 2 to 4 times daily.

Ibuprofen - For relief of moderately severe pain, especially of musculoskeletal origin, fever or anti-inflammatory action. Dose = 1 or 2 tablets orally every 4 to 6 hours. Do not exceed 6 tablets per 24 hours. WARNINGI Not to be used by patients allergic to Aspirin. May cause gastric irritation.

•Lomotil - A controlled substance related to Demerol plus Atropine used to control diarrhea in adults. Supplied as oral tablets. Dose = 1 tablet after each watery bowel movement, not to exceed 8 tablets in one day. If diarrhea persists for more than two days, seek medical help. WARNINGI This drug can cause drowsiness and respiratory depression and it should not be taken with other narcotics or drugs that cause sedation, including alcohol. Also it should not be taken by patients with prostatic hypertrophy or glaucoma. See warnings for Demerol.

Maalox - An antiacid preparation available over-the-counter, used to treat gastric upset. Supplied as liquid or in tablets. Follow the manufacturers directions.

•Mycolog-II Cream - A combination anti-fungal and steroid cream used to treat fungal infections of the skin. Supplied as a cream in 30 gram tubes. Dose = application to affected areas of the skin twice daily.

•Narcan - A specific narcotic antagonist, used when symptoms of narcotic overdose are present. - Supplied in 1 ml ampules each containing 0.4 mg. Dose =1 to 2 ampules IM immediately.

•Neosporin Opthalmic Solution - A topical antibiotic used to treat superficial eye infections. Supplied in 10 oz. bottles. Dose -- 2 drops in affected eye 2-4 times daily for up to 1 0 days. WARNING! Some patients are allergic to this drug combination.

•Nitroglycerine Tablets- An agent which causes blood vessels to dilate, used to pain of cardiac origin, such as angina pectoris or heart attack. Supplied as 0.3 mg sublingual tablets. Dose I tablet placed under the tongue, where it will dissolve spontaneously. May be repeated 2 times at 5 to 10 minute intervals. If pain persists, give Demerol and seek professional medical assistance.

Pepto Bismol : An oral suspension containing Bismuth and Salicylate (Aspirin), used to treat heartburn and/or diarrhea. Supplied in 16 oz. bottles. Dose = 2 tablespoons (1 oz.) every 1/2 to 1 hours as needed. Not to exceed 8 doses in 24 hours. WARNING! See Aspirin for precautions. If diarrhea persists for more than 24 hours, seek medical help.

•Phenergan - An antihistamine and sedative used with Ephedrine in the prevention of motion sickness. Supplied as 25 mg, tablets. Dose = 1 tablet every 8 hours with Ephedrine to prevent motion sickness. WARNING! May cause drowsiness, do not take with alcohol or other narcotic or sedative agents.

Robitussin - An over-the-counter cough medication. Supplied in 4 ox. bottles. Follow manufacturer's instructions.

•Silvadene Cream - An anti-microbial cream used to treat second and third degree burns. Supplied in 50 gm jars. Apply to burned area prior to application of dressing and change every 8 hours.

Sunscreen with PABA - Over-the-counter sunblock preparations. Least protection is No. 3, the most is No. 45. Supplied in 1 oz. tubes. dose = 1 to 3 applications daily as needed for sun protection.

Tinactin Solution - An over-the-counter solution used to treat topical fungal infections, especially jock itch and athlete's foot. Supplied in 1 oz. tubes. Follow manufacturers directions.

•Transdem-Scop - A slow release preparation of an agent used to prevent motion sickness. Supplied on a small adhesive patch which can be applied to any non-hairy area. Dose = 1 patch applied once every 3 days. WARNINGI Do not give to pregnant or nursing women, patients with glaucoma, kidney, liver, stomach or intestinal problems, patients with prostatic hypertrophy or trouble urinating or patients known to be allergic to Scopolamine. Wash hands thoroughly after applying patch. If adverse reaction occurs, remove patch.

•Lidocaine Hydrochloride.: An injectable local anesthetic used to control - local pain. Especially useful in cleaning dirty, painful wounds. Supplied as a 1 % solution in 1 0 ml vials. Dose = Infiltrate intracutaneously and subcutaneously up to 10 ml to control pain.


Ace Bandages - Elastic bandage for pressure dressing of wounds, sprains, and splints. Sizes = 2", 3", & 4". One of each size. (Note 3M makes an excellent disposable ace bandage under the name of COBAN).

Adhesive Tar)e - Size = 2". Two rolls.

Ammonia Ampules

Alcohol (rubbing) - A disinfectant. Also used to wipe skin prior to injections.

AMBU Mask and Bag - For respiratory assist.

Betadine Solution - An iodine containing skin disinfectant.

Band-Aids - (Assorted sizes, especially for fingers).

Blood Pressure Cuff - To take blood pressure.

Cavit - Packing for tooth cavity.,Obtain a jar from your dentist.

Cold Packs

Forceps - Take 1 pair.

Gauze Squares - 2" & 4-. Take 6 of each.

Gloves - Sterile rubber gloves.

Hemostat - Take at least 1. Also useful for boat repairs!

Hot Packs

Kling - A slightly elastic bandaging material which conforms to
irregular shapes. Comes in 2", 3" & 4" rolls. Take 3 of each.

Philadelphia Collar - A rigid cervical collar to be used in cases of
suspected broken neck.

Plastic Syringes - 1 ml, 5 ml and 10 ml. Take 3 of each plus
disposable needles. 25 9. x'/@-" & 22 9. x 1 7: -. 5 of each.

Pre-packaged Surgical Scrub Brushes - (with antiseptic solution). Also known as E - Z Scrub. Take 4.

Q-Tips - 1 box.

Resusitube - Plastic airway for mouth to mouth resuscitation.

Scalpel - #1 1 Blades

Sling - Triangular cotton bandage, made from 4 sq. ft. Take 1.

Splints - (Leg, arm and universal hand). Available in cardboard or as inflatable models.

Steri-strips - Adhesive strips for wound closure instead of suturesr Supplied as 6 strips per sterile plastic package. Take 6. Note: If you wish, you can fabricate your own.

Sterile Eye Pads - Take 6.


Suctioning Eguipment - Bulb syringe.

Syringes - Sterile disposable 3 cc and 1 0 cc with needles 25 gauge and 21 gauge. .

Syrup of Ipecac - Emetic to induce vomiting after ingestion. 30 cc for adult and 15 cc for child followed by water.

Tongue Depressors - Used to make small splints, to examine teeth, and to apply Silvadene Cream.

Vinegar - To neutralize discharge of toxin from jellyfish tentacles.

Zinc Oxide Ointment - To protect lips and nose from sun.

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General Points

A. BEFORE GOING ON A CRUISE, the wise skipper should:

1. Know about serious medical problems of crew members. Have doctor's and hospital phone and fax number.

2. Have crew members with significant health problems see their doctors and obtain emergency drugs and supplies for themselves. Extra set of prescriptions at sea.

3. Keep immunizations current, especially tetanus.

4. Take courses in basic life support (CPR) and first-aid. Update first-aid kit and pharmacy.

5. Learn to take blood pressures and to give ~SQ and ~IM injections.

6. Have crew medical alert tags-major diagnoses and allergies.


Consult a physician if at all possible; remember to Use the radiotelephone to call the patient's personal physician or one cruising nearby.

I.  First Things First - the A, B, C's

A. CARDIAC ARREST- may result from drowning, heart attack, electrocution, shock, etc.
1 . Signs and Symptoms
a. No respiration
b. No pulse (neck or groin)
c. No heart sounds
d. Pupils may be dilated and non-reactive to light

2. Treatment is CPR
A = Airway
B = Breathing
C = Circulation

II. Inhaled Meat _(Cafe Coronary Disease)

A. CAUSE = aspiration of large chunks of food (meat), especially after alcohol consumption.
1. Signs and Symptoms
a. Victim cannot talk, cough, or breathe
b. "Universal Distress Signal" = one or both hands encircling the neck.
2. Treatment
a. Heimlich Maneuver!
b. Do not use if patient can breathe and talk.
1 . Food is probably stuck in the esophagus.
2. Symptoms will pass with sips of water and time.

IV. Drowning and Near Drowning

1. CPR immediately until breathing has resumed - watch for subsequent cessation of breathing.
2. Clear airway if vomiting occurs.
3. When spontaneous breathing resumes, turn patient on side.
4. Do not give water.
5. Evacuate to a hospital ASAP - Patient may look fine for first few hours and then deteriorate fast.

V. Bleeding and Shock

A. SHOCK- Hypovolemic, cardiogenic, septic
1 .Signs and Symptoms
a. Ashen appearance
b. Cool, clammy skin
c. Dizziness
d. Rapid pulse
e. Low blood pressure
f. Thirst
2. Treatment
a. CPR if necessary
b. Keep head lower than heart and elevate feet at least 12"
c. Apply direct pressure to the bleeding site and elevate it if possible.
d. Maintain body temperature

VI. Anaphylactic Shock

A. CAUSE = Severe allergic reaction to medication, food, insect bites or pollen.
1. Signs and Symptoms
a. Wheezing and difficulty breathing.
b. Hives
c. Itching, burning and swelling of skin, especially of the face and neck.
d. Possibly nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, and cough.
e. Shock and possible death.
2. Treatment
a. CPR
b. Epinephrine
c. Phenergan
d. Benadryl

VII. Unconsciousness and Head Injuries

a. CPR if necessary.
b. Put cervical collar on all patients unconscious with head trauma.
c. Do not give pain medication or food or liquid by mouth.
d. Monitor vital signs.
e. Seek medical facilities ASAP.
B. HEAD TRAUMA - management
1. Seek medical facilities ~ASAP if any of the following are present: Blood or fluid from the ears. black eyes, unequal pupils, double vision, weakness or paralysis of a part of the body, coma or stupor, persistent or increasing headache, persistent vomiting, slow pulse, seizures, personality change, combativeness or change in personality, or loss of coordination.

VIII. Hypothermia

1. Uncontrolled shivering, fumbling hands or unsteady gait.
2. Vague, slow, slurred or incoherent speech.
3. Lapses of memory, reduced judgement or ability to think.
4. Irrational behavior.
5. Drowsiness, lethargy, apathy or unconsciousness.
1. CPR if necessary.
2. Get into a warm, protected environment and remove wet clothes.
3. Warm the central body (i.e. share a sleeping bag with the victim or place warm packs on the chest and abdomen, NOT the extremities).
5. Administer hot liquids by mouth.

IX. Fractures, Sprains and Dislocations

A. Signs and Symptoms (if in doubt treat as a fracture, also not all signs will be present).
1. Exquisite tenderness over the fracture site.
2. Deformity.
3. Moderate to severe swelling.
4. Moderate discoloration.
5. Grating ~feeiing when bones move.
6. Refusal to use the affected region.
B. Treatment
1. Splint in place or neutral position
2. Remove rings
A. Treatment
1. Apply ice or cold compress during the first 48 hours to decrease swelling.
2. Elevate the affected part.
3. Rest the joint by applying ace bandage or tape and try not to use the joint any more than necessary.

X. Burns

1. MODERATE AND SEVERE BURNS - Seek medical assistance immediately.
A. Third degree burns of more than 2% of the body surface.
B. Second degree burns of 15 to 30% of the body surface.
C. First degree burns of 50 to 75% of the body surface.
D. Any third degree burn of the hands, feet or face.

A. First Degree = redness.
B. Second Degree = redness and blisters.
C. Third Degree = gale. white, black or brown, painless.

3. TREATMENT (all burns)
A. CPR if necessary
B. Cold, wet compresses for ten minutes (do not produce shivering)
C. Pain medication as needed (Aspirin or Demerol).
D. Flush chemical burns with water for at least 20 minutes.
E. Cover with silvadine cream and apply sterile dressing. Change silvadine every eight hours.
F. Keep area clean and dry.
G. Blisters may be removed using sterile technique after 24-48 hours.

XI. Lacerations - management

A. CONTROL BLEEDING by applying direct pressure to the site.
B. PREVENT CONTAMINATION from hair, dirt and other foreign bodies.
C. DETERMINE if wound is SUPERFICIAL or DEEP by gentle inspection.
1. If it is SUPERFICIAL:
a. Wash the area thoroughly with soap and/or Phisohex.
b. Close with steri-strip if necessary.
c. Apply antibiotic ointment dressing and change daily.
2. If it is DEEP:
a. Full thickness of skin with subdermal fat visible.
b. May be deep vessels, tendons, muscle nerve or broken bones.
c. Use delayed closure.
1 . Irrigate wound.
2. Pack lightly with sterile mesh gauze.
3. Apply outer dressing.
4. Splint.
5. Primary closure can be done up to week later.
Tourniquet should be avoided.

XII. Stroke (Cerebral Vascular Accident) Impaired Circulation to Brain - 3 Types

A. THROMBUS - 75~-80% all strokes most common.
1 .Caused by clot in vessel.
2. 75% succeeded by transient ischemic attack (TIA).
a. Weakness difficulty with speech lasting less than 24 hours with no permanent effect.
3. Symptoms
a. Inability to speak, weakness.
b. Usually do not have head pain.
4. Treatment
a. MEDICAL FACILITY (Evacuate if possible.)
1. Blood clot or fatty deposit develops elsewhere in body and
travels to brain plugging up blood vessel.
2. Much less common.

1. Blood vessel in brain bursts, flooding of brain with blood.
2. "Worst headache of his or her life."
3. Abrupt onset with stiff neck after time.
4. Most dramatic and devastating stroke.
5. Treatment

XIII. Chest Pain

1. Sharp pain that increases with deep breath, cough, twisting of chest wall.
2. Causes
a. Pneumothorax, pneumonia.
b. Chest wall injury. Pulmonary embolus (blood clot).

3. Treatment
a. Analgesic.

B. CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE (Angina - Myocardial Infarction)
1 . Signs and symptoms.
a. Dull heavy chest discomfort any place from naval to nose. Radiation to back, arm or neck.
b. Difficulty breathing.
c. Nausea, vomiting, indigestion.
d. Skin pale, gray, diaphoretic.
e. Unusual pulse (rapid, slow, weak, irregular).
f. Past history of coronary artery disease.

a. CPR if necessary.
b. Have patient sit or lie down.
c. Nitroglycerin under the tongue at 5 to 10 minute intervals, until the pain Is relieved or until 3 tablets have been given.
d. Demerol - if systolic blood pressure > 100 or pulse is strong.

XIV. Abdominal Pain

1. Administer Maalox.
2. If no relief from Maalox, give NOTHING by mouth.
3. If pain lasts > 12 hours, get patient to a physician.

1. Rigid abdomen.
2. Bloody BM or vomitus.

C. SIGNS OF APPENDICITIS (atypical cases are NOT rare)
1 . Pain around the navel, shifting to the right, lower abdomen.
2. Nausea and vomiting.
3. Unwillingness to eat.
4. Gentle pressure on the right lower abdomen - > local pain.
5. Pain on coughing and/or defecation.
6. Pain become more intense as time passes.

1. Abrupt onset.
2. Severe pain.
3. Radiates to flank or groin.
4. Blood in urine (Coke colored).

XV. Use of Antibiotics

1. Ampicillin - (Erythromycin if allergic to penicillin or ampicillin Dental abscess, severe bronchitis, strep throat.
2. Cipro - Cystitis and other urinary tract infections.
3. Bacitracin Ointment - skin and wound infections.
4. Keflex - for deep soft tissue infections.
5. Mycolog 11 Cream - Fungal skin infections.
6. Neosporin Ophthalmic Drops ~- pink eye.
7. Cortisporin Ear Drops - swimmer's ear.

XVI. Dental Emergencies

1. SYMPTOMS - spontaneous pain, tooth tender to touch or Biting, slight to severe swelling, fever (a late sign).
2. TREATMENT - give Aspirin, Tylenol or Ibuprofen for pain, treat with Ampicillin (or Erythromycin if allergic to Penicillin or Ampicillin), rinse with warm, salty water several times daily. If patient gets worse or develops a 'boil" around the tooth, seek a dentist.

Wash (do not scrub) the tooth in fresh water and have the patient reinsert and hold it in place for 30-45 minutes, administer Ampicillin or Erythromycin and seek a dentist. If unable to put tooth back, preserve in closed container of cool milk. If no milk, use water.

C. LOST CROWN Fill the void created by the lost crown with cavit and save crown for later replacement by a dentist.

XVII. Foreign Body in the Eye

1. Flush the eye with copious amounts of water for 20~-30 minutes.
2. Patch eye to rest it.
3. If patient gets worse, consult with a physician.

Flush again with copious volumes of water (pouring from the bridge of the nose to the outer corner of the eye).
Use a Q-Tip or the tip of a 25 g. hypodermic needle to gently remove the object.
If this fails, evert the upper eyelid by gently pulling down on The eyelashes, placing a Q-Tip on the eyelid, and folding the eyelid upward, using the Q-Tip as a lever. If a foreign body is obvious, remove it gently with a Q-Tip.

XVIII. How to Give IM and SO Infections

1. Need - a 2-3 cc syringe, a sterile 21 gauge needle, betadine, alcohol and the medication.
2. Cleanse the area with betadine and remove with alcohol.
3. Cleanse the top of the medicine bottle with alcohol and draw the medication into the syringe, being certain to expel bubbles.
4. Make the injection into the upper, outer quadrant of the buttock by grasping the skin around the injection site and inserting the needle at a steep angle.
5. Pull back on the plunger of the syringe to assure that the needle is not in a blood vessel and then slowly inject the medication.

1. Need - 2 cc syringe, sterile 25 g. needle, betadine, alcohol, and the medication
2. Cleanse the injection area and medication bottle as above and draw the medication into the syringe as above.
3. Hold the needle at a 45 degree angle to the skin and insert it under the skin, but not into the muscle.

XIX. Miscellaneous - Treatment or Prevention of Common, Misc. Conditions
SEA SICKNESS - Fresh air, don't go below, focus on horizon. Dramamine, Scopolamine patch, Stugeron (OTC in Bermuda and Europe), "Relief Band.
JELLY FISH - CPR if necessary, neutralize the toxin with vinegar. Do Not use meat tenderize, ammonia, alcohol or baking soda.
SUNBURN -Avoid by the use of ~sunblock cream or lotion!
SPLINTERS - Remove with a sterile needle and/or tweezers.
BOILS - Will usually drain with the application of warm compresses several times a day and with covering the boil with sterile dressing.
NOSEBLEEDS - Pinch the nose and apply cold compresses to the nose. Have the patient sit up, not lie down.
DIARRHEA - Replace lost fluids, withhold solid foods initially until diarrhea subsides and administer Pepto-Bismol or Lomotil. Reintroduce solids with bland, low fiber food.

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Tips for Successful Cruising

Notes prepared by Barbara Marrett to accompany panel discussions at Strictly Sail Chicago and Sail Expo Atlantic City - 1998



Cruising success starts with choosing the right crew. You can be an excellent sailor and have a beautiful boat, but if you can't get along with your mate, crew or captain you probably won't be enjoying paradise. Surveys of the crews completing the Europa'95 around the world cruisers'rally confirmed what many long-term sailors know. The most important ingredient to a successful cruise is the people on board. Crew problems plagued some of the Europa boats crewed by non-family members. Although couples and family have a much easier time getting along in the confines of a small space than do friends or strangers, most couples are not used to being around each other 24 hours a day. Allow for a period of adjustment to the new lifestyle, expect to miss certain friends or aspects of your former life. Become comfortable with crew and the boat by completing a challenging shakedown cruise. Remember, the more the crew is familiar with the boat and is involved in the decision-making, the more successful the cruise for everyone. Studies have shown, that the person with the least to do is the one most in danger of becoming depressed and unmotivated.

The most successful crews seem to be those where everyone, including the captain, cooks, cleans and stands watch. In isolated Antarctica, studies have shown that job satisfaction directly relates to mental health. Part of the equation is that even the highest ranking scientists take turns cleaning and cooking; this variety boosts morale, makes everyone part of a team and wards off depression.


The boat you choose can make the difference between a solid investment and a safe, comfortable cruise or a poor investment and unsafe, uncomfortable home. Don't underestimate the amount of time it takes to find and outfit a good cruising boat. Some points to be aware of when choosing a suitable cruising boat:

1. Design. Was the boat constructed for the kind of sailing you plan to do? Is it a lake sailor, coastal or long distance cruiser? Did the builder follow the designer's construction criteria? If possible, contact the designer before purchasing, ask about the yard your boat was built in, ask if he or she would recommend any modifications to the boat for the type of cruising you plan. For couples, find out how easily the boat can be sailed short-handed. Can either partner easily trim the sails, reef or raise the anchor, alone? Is it easy to steer by hand, can it easily accommodate a windvane or autopilot? Is the boat tender; will you be constantly adjusting to excessive heel while under sail? Does it have a comfortable motion at sea? Will low freeboard allow a lot of spray in the cockpit? Will excessively high freeboard cause too much windage at anchor and adversely affect windward performance?

2. Builder. Does the builder have a good ~reputatio ~n? Will it be easy to obtain replacement parts from them? If a used boat, is the builder still in business? Ask about your particular ~boat's construction. and potential problems.

3. Performance. The shorter your passages, the less exposure you have to heavy weather conditions. Good performance not only means a faster sail, but less motoring and fuel consumption, more maneuverability and more fun sailing in the light air conditions common world-wide. How well does the boat perform to windward? Will you be able to sail off a lee shore? Will up-wind passages back home be very difficult?

4. Comfort. If your plans include livina, aboard while cruising, remember most cruisers only spend 1/4 of their time under sail. So, while safety and sailing characteristics are paramount, don't compromise your livino space. After all, the boat is home.

5. Storage. If long cruises are in your plans, is there room for additional sails, tanks, food, bosun locker supplies, spare parts, medical and safety supplies? Are lockers well compartmentalized and ventilates

6. Additional weight. Can the boat carry the weight of additional anchors, chain, windlass, water, fuel, life raft, dinghy and outboard without lowering the waterline detrimentally and compromising performance?

7. Hull Strength. Is the boat solid enough below the waterline to take a minor collision with minimal damage? If damage occurs, how easily can it be repaired? Boats which are wooden, balsa-core or foam-cored below the waterline may be damaged more easily and be more difficult to repair than solid fiberglass or metal boats.

8. Deck. Is there adequate non-skid? If the deck is balsa-cored, has the core become water-logged? If teak, will it need to be replaced soon; an expensive job! Is it insulated, providing heat protection and reducing condensation and moisture below? Is the deck easy to negotiate? Are there grab rails; high, sturdy stanchions and lifelines?

9. Hull to Deck Joint. Is it adequately sealed and constructed to prevent leaks?

10. Chainplates. Are they adequate to spread the load without distorting the hull or lifting the deck? Will they be prone to leaking?

I 1. Mast. Is there adequate structural support under the deck-stepped mast to insure the load is transferred to the keel. Keel stepped mast, is there leaking and corrosion or rot at the base?

12. Keel. Is the keel built to withstand a hard-grounding; a common occurrence among long distance cruisers? Or is it a fragile fin-keel? If there is internal ballast, check for water penetration between fiberglass and ballast. Iron ballast, if wet will mst and disintegrate. If externally ballasted, is there a substantial stub as an integral part of the hull to bolt the keel to.

13. Rudder. Is the rudder protected from flotsam? Can the rudder take some impact or a grounding without damage? How easily can it be removed for repair? Generally, ~keg protected rudders fare much better than unprotected spade rudders under hard use.

14. Engine. How easy will it be to obtain spare parts and have work done on your engine in the areas you plan on cruising? Volvo, Perkins, Caterpillar, Cummins, Detroit Diesel and Yanmar are generally easier to find parts for than other brands. Is engine access good? Can you easily check filters, change the oil and perform routine maintenance on the engine without difficulty. How reliable is your engine? Find a mechanic who specializes in your particular engine, ask what common failures are, then make sure you have the spares to fix it. Keep an engine log.

Points to keep in mind:

1. If long-term cruising, don't overspend on initial boat purchase price; save at least 40-50% of your total budget for outfitting, provisioning and cruising funds.

2. More complicated systems mean more money and maintenance, repairs and spares. If you don't feel comfortable fixing it, maybe you don't need it. Think moderate in terms of displacement and sail area when planning long distance. Ultra-lights are great for racing, but can be uncomfortable and unsuitable in heavy weather. Similarly, ultra-heavy displacement boats are sometimes poor performers, slow passage makers.

3. Have the boat carefully and thoroughly surveyed by a marine surveyor experienced in your type of boat. Choose the surveyor yourself, rather than relying on the yacht broker or boat seller.

4. Talk to people who own sister ships to the boat you are considering. Cruising World Maga2ine's Another Opinion service 1-900-988-2275 can put you in contact with boat owners. Practical Sailor has evaluations of more than 80 different boats, call 203-661-4802, a small fee is charged to send.

Suggested Reading:

- Classic Plastic, ongoing articles on used fiberglass boats in Cruising World Magazine beginning Oct. '97

- Best Boats to Build or Buy, Ferenc Mate, Albatross Publishing ISBN: 0-929256-24~-4 $29.95

- Practical Sailor's Practical Boat Buying. P.O. Box 2626, Greenwich, CT 06836-2626 $29.95

- Surveying Fiberglass Sailboats, Henry C. Mustin, International Marine, ISBN: 0-87742-347-4 $17.95

- The Complete Offshore Yacht, Yachting Monthly, ISBN: 1-85277-068-6, $18.00

- Desirable and Undesirable Characteristics of Offshore Yachts, John Rousmaniere, $29.95

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Cruising Preparation Schedule and Checklist

by Sharon Jacobs and David Cohan


One to Two Years Before
3 to 12 Months Before Leaving I to 3 Months Before
Education and Practice Study celestial navigation Study coastal navigation
Study foreign language(s)
Practice boat handling skills, heaving to, MOB recovery, anchor handling, etc.  Get experience sailing at night and in heavy weather.
Study for and get Ham license.  Take emergency medicine course. Learn about sail repair. Practice navigation skills.  Diesel engine maintenance training. Try out storm sails. Keep practiocing - get as familiar with your boat as you can.
Records Set up maintenance log. Start using maintenance log. Set up cruising info log. Obtain radio ship's license. Set up Ship's Log
Set up spare's inventory
Set up provisions inventory
Set up medical inventory
Get ship's stationery and cards.
Create/copy crew lists
Make copies of ships papers
Get ship's stamp
Medical histories/records
Route and Logistics Planning Tentative schedule. Check weather patterns and pilot charts. Research places to visit. Acquire cruising guides
Get charts, pilot's etc.
Renew passports
Identify mail stops
Get visas
Get courtesy flags
Set up mail forwarding
Cahnge of address
Financial and Personal Planning Plan disposition of house or apartment. Plan job transitions, timing. Prepare a realistic budget. Plan disposition of car
Plan medical insurance
Plan boat insurance
Set up financial records
Have thorough physical exam
Have thorough dental exam
Plan immunizations
Get travellers checks
Set up power of attorney
Bank signature cards
Plan tax filing
Plan bill paying
Final dental check-up
Stocking and Provisioning Plan food storage.   Try out canned and dried foods to see what you like. Get/stow spares for all systems on the boat (engine, pumps, electrical, rigging, sails, etc.)
Get/stow medical supplies
Prepare abandon ship bag
Collect/stow books
Get/stow canned and dried food 2-6 weeks ahead. Get fresh food 1-2 days ahead. Get and store film.
Boat Preparation Test all equipment. Do a shake donw trip. Plan secure stowage for all provisions, spares, tools, etc. Ensure all lockers have postive closures. Calibrate compass
Haul boat, paint bottom, Check all thru-hulls
Check mast and rigging
Check plumbing, pumps, electrical systems.
Replace flares, all batteries. Do final engine maintenance. Do final boat cleaning, teak. Check life raft and EPIRB.

Copyright 1997 by Sharon Jacobs and David Cohan

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Budgeting for Comfortable Cruising

(Prepared by Barbara Marrett, Scott and Kitty Kuhner, Mark Scott and Liz Hammick)

How much does it cost to cruise? The familiar refrain is, "It costs as much as you have." Probably the biggest factor determining costs is the lifestyle and expectations of the crew. While other costs are fairly fixed, this fluctuates widely from boat to boat. When figuring your own costs, or looking at someone else's budget, you must take into consideration many variables including the following:

1. How much you have to spend.

2. The current lifestyle and expectations of the crew. Do you or they view this as a vacation with lots of meals out, car rentals, souvenirs, frequent entertainment and hotel stays? Or, is cruising going to be a change of lifestyle with associated hard work and budgeting?

3. Size, age, condition and construction material of the boat will affect costs. The bigger the boat the more everything from bottom paint, to haul-out, to moorage fees will be. Is there varnish to maintain, or a costly repainting of a metal or wooden hull? Will the boat need to be re powered, re rigged, or refit soon?

4. The more complex the plumbing, electrical mechanical and electronic systems, the more time and money will be involved in maintaining.

5. Boat insurance, medical insurance, airplane tickets, business expenses, film, telephone calls, correspondence school, should be included when applicable. Put in a cushion for unexpected breakdowns or theft. Look carefully at other people's budgets, see what they include when tallying up the bottom line.

6. You need to average several years cruising to get a realistic over-all budget because some years are light maintenance and supply-wise, others are very costly. Some areas are cheaper to cruise in than others. Some places you'll want to leave the boat and do extensive touring ashore.

If you haven't already bought your boat, figure your entire outfitting budget and cruising kitty first, deduct these amounts from total budget, what you have left is what you can spend to purchase your boat. Most people spend too much on the initial purchase price of their boat then run out of money outfitting and have nothing left for their cruising kitty. Use the following books and the remainder of this handout to get an idea of outfitting costs and costs while cruising different areas of the world.

Recommended reading, from the folks at Armchair Sailor in Seattle:

Voyaging on a Small Income, Annie Hill, 188 pp., 1993, $20.00, Annie and Pete Hill have cruised for over a decade and covered over 6,000 miles on the plywood 34' sailing dory they built themselves. Although their budget averages $2,000 a year, it's not a book about sailing on the cheap but rather, about how to simplify your life to make sailing less complicated and more enjoyable. Lots of hints on provisioning, outfitting and boat selection.

Ocean Cruising on a Budget, Anne Hammick, 192 pp., 1991, $19.95. With 16 years of ocean experience, the author seems to strike just the right balance between good seamanship and good money management. "Budget" means $35,000 for a boat and outfitting, and $5,000 per year for two adults for short-term cruising (one or two years before going home to replenish the kitty and repair the gear.)

How to Survive Without a Salary, Charles Long, 208 pp., 1996, $14.95. Not necessarily written for the cruiser but for everyone concerned with the diminishing purchasing power of their dollar. Long will teach you how to get along with less and make do with what you have.

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Discount prices for Outfitting a 35' boat from West Marine and Boat U.S. ~catalgs.

1. Global Positions System (GPS)..................................................... from $175 to 2949

2. Shortwave Radio Receiver (Radio Shack, Sony or ICOM).....................$220 to 2100

3. VHF Marine Radio, Antenna, Cable (Icom M-58 or M-125)...................... 385 to 584

4. Handheld VHF Radio Icom M-15, ACR Liferaft Radio.............................. 399 to 399

5. Dinghy/Tender (Avon 7 to Avon RIB 310)......................................... ...1295 to 3449

6. Dodger (w/stainless frames & hardware, acrylic or Weblon)................... 585 to 3000

7. Windvane Self-Steering System (Navik or Monitor) ..........................1595 to 2995

8. Depth Sounder (Autohelm St-50+ to B&G Network Quad)....................... 379 to 969

9. Distance Log and Knotmeter (Autohelm ST-50+ to B&G Quad).............. 639 to 799

10. Bilge Pump (Whale Gusher 10, 30, plus Rule 3700)................................. 679 to 679

11. Liferaft (Viking Icelandic, to Switlik SOLAS-A)............................... 3800 to 4579

12. Emergency Watermaker (Survivor 06 to Survivor 35)......................... 499 to 1349

13. EPIRB (Litton 406 or ACR Cat. II, Class 2).............................................. 789 to 799

14. Safety Harness and Tethers (2) (West Marine Std. or Inflatable)............ 70 to 290

15. Add'l. Safety Equipment (2 vests, throwable, flares, thermal).............. 367 to 1420

16. First Aid Kit Including Prescription Drugs.............................................. 400 to 1200

17. Automatic (engine room) and Manual (galley) Extinguishers................ 218 to 508

18. Handheld 12 Volt Spotlight (300,000 to 1,000,000 candlepower).................. 40 to 63

19. Radar Reflector (Davis Echomaster or Firdell Blipper)................................ 37 to 160

20. Masthead Tricolor Navigation Light (Aqua Signal Series 40)................. 47 to 145

21. Batteries (Prevailer Deep-Cycle Gel, 2x4D or 2x8D).................................... 742 to 898

22. Battery Condition-Voltmeter (Cr. Equip. E-Meter, ProMar ESM-4).......... 34 to 199

23. Foul Weather Gear (WMP Expl or Henri-Lloyd ocean w/pants x 2)....... 650 to 2166

24. Tools ................................................................................................................200 to 400

25. Lifesling, Hoisting Tackle and Man Overboard Pole................................ 345 to 345

26. Whisker or Reaching Pole (Forespar)............................................................ 398 to 890

27. Ventilation..................................................................................................... 150 to 600

28. Additional Water Tanks (3x5 gal.jugs & 3coll. jugs minimum)............... 60 to 300

29. Water Taste Filter (Ametek or Racor)............................................................. 45 to 45

30. Additional Fuel Tankage (3x5 gallon jugs minimum).............................. 34 to 278

31. Bosun's Chair (West marine Pocket or Professional).................................... 80 to 109

32. Swim Ladder (Perko folding x 4, Sopac stainless)..................................... 68 to 179

33. Snorkeling Gear x 2..................................................................................... 200 to 400

34. Additional Interior Cabin Lights (Alpenglow x 2 or x 5)..........................214 to 535

35. Anchor Roller (Windline Marine URM-1)................................................. 209 to 209

36. Anchoready (holder for Danforth Anchor on stern pulpit)........................... 38 to 38

37. Secondary Compass for Belowdecks (Ritchie or Danforth)....................... 59 to 294

38. Handbearing Compass (Davis to KVH Datascope)...................................... 38 to 350

39. Binoculars (West Mar. Quick Focus, Fujinon or Steiner).......................... 90 to 809

40. Dividers, Parallel Rules, Plotting Sheets....................................................... 30 to 30

41. Barometer (Weems & Plath, Chelsea)............................................................ 56 to 206

42. Chronometer (Weems & Plath, Chelsea)....................................................... 56 to 247

43. Back-Up Chronometer (Casio, Timex, Swatch Quartz wristwatch).............. 30 to 60

44. Primary Metal Sextant (Astra IIIB to C. Plath Navistar Classic)........ 420 to 2640

45. Secondary Plastic Sextant (Davis Mk 25) Omit W/GPS ..........................33 to 199

46. Charts (60 @ av. $16 ea., Sail. Dir., Nav. Tables, Cr. Guides)............... 1500 to 2500

47. Engine and Boat Spare Parts...................................................................... 500 to 1500

48. Storm Jib, Storm Trysail, Drifter or MPS ............................................... 3500 to 7000

49. Awning/Raincatcher, Cockpit Weather Canvas......................................... 800 to 2000

50. Rigging and Canvas Spares.......................................................................... 300 to 300

51. Flags................................................................................................................. 100 to 300

52 Anchors (45 & 35 lb. CQR, West Marine Performance 25 lb)................ 1165 to 1165

53 Chain (total of 350' in 3 sections, 5/16 BBB ACCO).................................. 808 to 808

54. Anchor Windlass (Simpson Lawrence 9555 or Maxwell VWC 1200).. 1461 to 1895

Total.......................................................................................................... $27,031 $58,330.

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The equipment listed here will make a long-distance cruise more comfortable, and in some cases, safer, more convenient, and more fun. I've listed these in the priority order that I personally would choose for my own boat, if I had an unlimited budget. Your personal tastes, cruising grounds and budget will dictate what optional gear you choose when outfitting. You certainly don't need any of this gear to cruise successfully. Discount prices listed here are from either West Marine or Boat US catalogs, or sources listed in the Optional Equipment section.

1. Radar (Furuno 1621, Raytheon R1OXX, R20XX).......................................1579 to 3189

2. Single Side Band Radio and Tuner (ICOM M-710 & AT-130).................. 1849 to 1849


3. Ham Radio Transceiver with Tuner (ICOM 707 & AT 130)......................... 1399 to 1399

4. Autopilot (Navico, Autohelm, Brookes & Gatehouse, KWH, AMS)............. 698 to 3907

5. Fuel Filter (WMP Funnel-Filter or Baja Filter).................................................. 15 to 149

6. High Output Alternator w/Regulator (Balmar 103 or 200 amp).................. 443 to 993

7. Outboard Motor (Johnson or Evinrude 4, 8, or 15 hp)................................... 937 to 2001

8. Solar Panel (United Solar 22 amp to Siemens M 75 watt)......................... 259 to 575

9. Electric Cabin Fan (Hella Jet or Hella Turbo Fan x 3)...................................... 78 to 174

10. 12 Volt Vacuum Cleaner (Powervinch or Bl&Dkr Dustbuster Plus)................. 27 to 49

11. Watermaker (PUR 80II Modular, Standard, Village).............................. 2795 to 7590

12. Refrigeration (Adler Barbour Super Coldmachine to Glacier Bay)........ 1634 to 6000

13. Sewing Machine (Pfaff 130 or Sailrite SR 200)....................................... 650 to 2245

14. SCUBA Gear................................................................................................... 400 to 1500

15. Weather Facsimile (Alden Faxmate, Furuno DFAX 208)........................... 795 to 1600

16. Inverter (West Marine 250 watt to Heart 2500 watt)................................... 100 to 795

17. Towing Generator (Redwing or Ferris)......................................................... 595 to 739

18. Notebook Computer (IBM, Toshiba, DEC, Epson, SEA PC + monitor)... 1200 to 3729

19. Inmarsat-C/GPS (Trimble Galaxy 4.0)..................................................... 3990 to 3990

20. Video Camcorder (Sony 8mm to Underwater Model)................................. 700 to 1695

21. Folding Bicycle (Da Hon 18 speed or 201, Mariner S/S)............................. 350 to 360

22. Roller Furling (ProFurl, Furlex, Harken, Schaffer or Reckmann).........1760 to 4490

23. Underwater Camera (Minolta Weathermatic to Nikonos v)........................ 235 to 539

24. Television/VCR Combination........................................................................ 450 to 450

Totals.......................................................................................................... $22,938 to 50,007


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Lone Rival's Annual Cruising Budget

Lone Rival is a 38', production cruising boat buift in England and was 16 years old when we left in 1994. We have no refrigeration and no shower. Our electrical demands are satisfied by a 40 watt solar panel that was already 6 years old when we left. We had a HAM radio that was 10 years old and electronic navigation was with a sat-nav, which had come with the boat, and backup was provided by a sextant . We had an Optimist dinghy as our tender and did not have an outboard, We bought a new lifera:ft and a 406 epirb for a total of $4,600. We spent $5,000 on a new suit, of saiLs. This boat already had sailed several thousands of miles when I bought it to do a 4 year circumnavigation, and subsequently a 3 year cruise around Africa.

We used a European health insurer who gave us excellent coverage, including Medivac, for anywhere in the world, except the U.S and Canada. (Private Patients Plan, International Insurance Dept., PPP House, Tunbridge Wells, Kent TN1 1BJ, England.  FAX 0892-515167.) We had only 3rd party boat insurance, and that was for the one year we were in the Mediterranean. We usually packed a picnic lunch for a day outing, used only public transportation, and meals out were only in local eateries. We only bought beer or wine and very few souvenirs.

Annual Cmising Expenses, Calendar Year 1995 (From Tunisia to Malta, Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon and Israel.) for a couple with a 3 year old. Calendar Year 1996 (From Israel, 3 months in the Red Sea, the Seychelles, Kenya, Tanzania0, Madagascar and S. Africa.)

Boat Expenses: Operation and Maintenance


Boat Insurance*......................................................................... 600

Diesel, propane, engine oil, filters............................................. 540........... 310

Maintenance (bottom paint, haulout)..................................... 350............ 600

Transmission re-build............................................................ 1,000

Customs, clearance, harbor fees, visas, canal transit).......... 575............ 630

Marine dockage .......................................................................5 15............ 165

Gear and boat supplies (inc. 2 batteries, new chain)............. 640............ 345

Charts, cruising guides............................................................ 100............. 100

Subtotal............................................................................... $4,320 .......$2,150

Personal & Living Expenses

Groceries (inc. wine & beer, a big store-up in Cyprus '95
      & Durban in ~"96)................................................................ 1,940......... 1,720

Touring (local buses-taxi in Lebanon, cheap hotels in Syria
     & hostel in Jordan, tickets to ruins, museums, etc.)............ 2,820 .........1,000

Safari in Tanzania (7 days) and climbing Mt. Kilimanjaro................... 3,000

Entertainment (Local food stalls & eateries,
     often took our own picnics).......................................................950.............. 500

Souvenirs (+12 rolls of 36 exp. Film and a carpet in Tunisia) 425 ..............280

Communications (faxes and mail).............................................. 310............... 300

Medical (started with medical kit at value of $300)....................30.................. 50

Health Insurance (Private Patients Plan from U.K)................ 1,800............ 1,900

Clothing (a few t-shirts, 3 pairs of shoes for child ca. Year)....... 200............... 200

Special Events (Christmas mail postage $80, presents, etc.)..... 150 ...............150

Subtotal.................................................................................... $8,655 ..........$9,130

TOTAL .....................................................................................$12,975 .........$11,290

*We used Pantaenius for boat insurance while in the Med.: Pantaenius UK Ltd. Marine Building, Victoria Wharf Plymouth PL 4ORF, UK. Fax +44-17-52-22-36-37.

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Tamure's Annual Cruising Expenses
for a Family of Four

"How much does it cost?" Is far and away the most asked question from from people interested in going cruising; it is also one of the most difficult to answer. In the early 70's we sailed around the world on a 30 foot Seawind ketch with basically a sextant, depth sounder & leadline for navigation, a Hasler windvane, a two burner kerosene stove (no oven) and not even a cube of ice on board for four years (rum & warm Tang suited us just fine). We lived frugally but didn't deny ourselves, spent $3000 a year and had a ball!

Our second trip, from 1987-91, was as a family of four including two growing boys who were teenagers by the time we returned. On our Valiant 40 Tamure we added to the sextant a Satnav and radar; the very same Hasler steered us when there was wind, but when there wasn't, we had an autopilot; I had a two burner propane stove with an oven and even a refrigeration system. We lived well but not extravagantly by any means, and spent between $18-25,000 a year. There were families with annual budgets of $10,000 and families who spent a lot more than we did (notably one with a huge boat, paid crew, & lots of "extras" who reputedly spent in the hundreds of thousands a year); but the point is, we all shared many of the same experiences, anchorages and sea stories in each other's cockpits, no matter how much we spent!

So it's really tough to tell you how much it will cost. It will pretty much be whatever you have to spend. The important thing is to start with a well-found boat. TAMURE was seven years old when we bought her and although she had done several Transatlantics, she was spartan in terms of gear, having basically only an autopilot & depth sounder. Over the five years we owned her prior to leaving, we added electronic equipment like a ham radio, satnav, Loran, & radar, as well as a nearly bullet proof dodger, refrigeration, Pro Furl & new sails and a rubber dinghy. We had the engine rebuilt but already had sextants, the Hasler vane, an Epirb, a liferaft and even charts through Indonesia from our previous boat. We were well equipped and didn't buy any major gear along the way except solar panels the first year: the next year though, among other things, we installed new Lewmar hatches in NZ and bought a dinghy engine & camera equipment in Singapore (part of Gear & Boat Supplies).

A lot of what you will spend depends on the part of the world you are in (SE Asia and the Red Sea are much cheaper than the Caribbean and the Med) and what percentage of time you are actually at sea (where you can't spend any money at all!) and on isolated islands as opposed to being in first-world countries doing major repairs and provisioning. Traveling with kids, we tended to take a guided tour, to the Ephesus ruins in Turkey or to blue footed boobie colonies in the Galapagos for example, and we learned more that way. Because we love carvings and works of art, like San Blas moles and the primitive carvings of New Guinea, we not only made them a big part of our budget, but gave the kids $25 to spend in each new port to begin their own collections.

Calendar Year 1988 (Including the San Blas Islands, Panama & the Perlas, Galapagos, French Polynesia, Suvarov, Samoa, Tonga, Fiji and nearly 2 months in New Zealand) Calendar Year 1989 Including 6 months Iiving/working in NZ, New Caledonla, Solomons, New Guinea, northern Australia, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand)

Boat Expenses($ U.S.): Operation and Maintenance



Diesel, outboard gas, propane



Engine & electronics repairs (incl. alternator repair)



Maintenance (bottom paint, welding, sailrepairs, life raft repack, major refit NZ'89, haul out)



Customs, clearance, harbor fees ( Incl.Canal transit visas, Indonesian cruising permit '89)



Marina dockage (dockside working in NZ '89)



Gear & boat supplies (Incl. Solar panels, scuba gear, VHF, fishing gear, Jerry jugs, batteries, shower spray, oars, '89 new Lewmar hatches, dinghy engine, camera)



Charts, cruising guides (we Invested In B.A. charts for the other half of the world in NZ)






Personal and Living Expenses
Groceries (Incl. liquor and a mayor stockup In Samoa,'89 in NZ & Singapore)



Calvert School (1 year each boy, Incl. $321 air freight)



Touring & local travel (incl. Park permits Galapagos &hiring local guides, buses, tams, '89 car expenses NZ, sold car when left, van rental & "hotels" Bali)



Entertainment (meals out, treats, especially ice cream, tickets to dance contests for Fete, '89 working NZ)



Souvenirs & memorabilia (incl. molas, carvings, paintings, film & developing, Bali paintings)



Communications (incl. faxes, postage, sending carvings home, phone from ashore & at sea through KMI)



Medical (vitamins, seasick patches, sunblock, doctors visits, malaria medication, excluding S1500 medical kit we left with, incl. Medicine '89 NZ, dentists)



Health Insurance (Major medical, US policy)



Clothing (pareus, shorts, shoes in particular for boys)



Special events (Christmas & birthdays, grab bag surprises for long passages)



Unexpected emergency travel (two trips home for Kitty, incl. airline tickets & misc. travel expenses)






Grand Total



I included Health Insurance even though it isn't really a cost of being "Out There", as we feel so strongly about having it because of the following experiences: On our first circumnavigation, in our younger days, we elected not to continue the health insurance my employer offered us at his group rate. When Scott developed a malignant melanoma near the end of that trip, we paid many times over what the insurance would have cost us for his care and often had difficulty just getting insurance from then on. This time, especially since we were a family, we felt It was very important to carry health Insurance, even though the rate went up every year that we were gone. We used it on a number of occasions, including supplying our medical kit, but especially when I shattered my leg In NZ and almost had to fly home for a bone graft. In the end, I elected to stay In NZ with the best orthopedic surgeon in Auckland, and after 3 hospital stays, a plate and 4 screws and months of physical therapy, our stateside insurance had more than paid for itself. I could have just gone with the NZ insurance plan offered free to foreigners but would not have been able to choose a doctor or hospital.

However, we did not insure the boat. Not only was it almost impossible to get, but very expensive and since Tamure was a 1975 Valiant 40 which we had gotten for a reasonable price, we chose to go with extra heavy ground tackle, good charts & equipment and prudent navigation-we never took chances.

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